Common Types

What is Neuroblastoma?

What is Neuroblastoma?

Neuroblastoma is a type of tumor that forms in the immature nerve cells, or neuroblasts, of children. Neuroblasts begin developing in the fetus and, once the child is born, most of those cells develop normally. However, when they develop atypically, the neuroblasts become cancerous and result in neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma tumors typically develop in the adrenal glands but can also appear anywhere a group of nerve cells exists—the abdomen, chest, neck and around the spine are also common areas where cancer could develop. Neuroblastoma most often affects children under the age of five and rarely occurs in older children. It accounts for approximately 7-10 percent of childhood cancers. Neuroblastoma is slightly more common in boys than in girls Signs and Symptoms of Neuroblastoma There are a host of symptoms of neuroblastoma that can vary greatly, depending on where the tumor is located...

read more
What is Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT)?

What is Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT)?

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) is a rare and fast-growing tumor that typically originates in the brain and spinal cord. These tumors most often occur in the part of the brain called the cerebellum, which controls movement and balance, or in the brain stem, which controls vital functions like breathing and heart rate. AT/RT mainly occurs in children under the age of three, but it can occur in older children and very rarely in adults. AT/RT is found in fewer than 3% of children with brain tumors. In most cases, AT/RT is associated with a specific genetic mutation in the SMARCB1 or SMARCA4 genes. These genes make a protein that helps control cell growth. About 10% of AT/RT cases have a hereditary genetic abnormality that increases the risk of developing AT/RT. AT/RT SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS AT/RT symptoms vary depending on the tumor’s size and location as well as the child’s age....

read more
What is Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)?

What is Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)?

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a brain tumor found in a part of the brain stem—above the back of the neck and connected to the spine—called the pons. The pons is a vital part of the brain, controlling critical bodily functions like breathing, swallowing, blood pressure, heart rate, eyesight and balance. DIPG occurs almost exclusively in children; most often between the ages of four and 11. DIPG accounts for roughly 10-15% of all brain tumors in children. These tumors—called gliomas because they grow from glial cells—permeate healthy brain tissue and cause severe symptoms. DIPG is classified into four stages, with Grade III and IV being the most aggressive. DIPG SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Children with DIPG typically experience double vision, loss of balance and clumsiness, weakness in the arm and legs, nausea and vomiting, headaches (especially in the morning) and difficulty with...

read more
What is Rhabdomyosarcoma?

What is Rhabdomyosarcoma?

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a type of soft tissue cancer that most commonly affects children and adolescents. It’s often found in skeletal muscle tissue or organs, such as the head and neck area, the urinary system, the reproductive system or appendages like the arms and legs. Rhabdomyosarcoma is part of a larger grouping of cancers called sarcomas which emerge in the body’s connective tissues, like muscles, fat, bones, blood vessels and joints. There are 50 different types of sarcomas. There are only two main types of rhabdomyosarcoma: embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS). Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma generally occurs in children under the age of 10. It is the most common type of rhabdomyosarcoma and is typically found in the head, neck, urinary tract or reproductive organs. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is more common in adolescents and young adults, and it...

read more
What is Medulloblastoma?

What is Medulloblastoma?

Medulloblastoma is a type of brain cancer that’s most commonly found in children. “Medulloblastoma starts in the cerebellum, which is located in the back of the brain,” explained Rally-funded Researcher Dr. Jezabel Rodriguez-Blanco, Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina. “It is a fast-growing tumor that often compresses the ventricle that brings the protective cerebrospinal fluid to the brain. The cerebellum is the part of the brain that controls balance, coordination, speech and other motor functions. Medulloblastoma can spread through the fluid that surrounds your brain, called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and affect the areas around the brain and spinal cord. Rarely does it spread to other parts of the body.  “Medulloblastoma has been one of the most molecularly interrogated pediatric tumors,” said Rally-funded Researcher Dr. Vidya...

read more
What is a Glioma?

What is a Glioma?

“Glioma” is a general term for a group of tumors that begin in glial cells—the supporting cells of the brain. Gliomas are classified based on their location and by the type of glial cell—astrocytes, oligodendrocytes or ependymocytes—from which they arise. Thus, many different types of brain tumors are classified as gliomas, like astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, brain stem gliomas and glioblastomas. About half of all pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors are gliomas. Gliomas are the most common group of brain tumors in both children and adults. “There are studies that definitely show that while pediatric high-grade gliomas share certain features with adult gliomas, they are also biologically distinct from adult high-grade gliomas,” said Rally-funded Researcher Renee Read, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology and Department of...

read more

$

Sign up for our emails!

Fill out my online form.

Recent Posts

Common Types

What is Neuroblastoma?

What is Neuroblastoma?

Neuroblastoma is a type of tumor that forms in the immature nerve cells, or neuroblasts, of children. Neuroblasts begin developing in the fetus and, once the child is born, most of those cells develop normally. However, when they develop atypically, the neuroblasts become cancerous and result in neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma tumors typically develop in the adrenal glands but can also appear anywhere a group of nerve cells exists—the abdomen, chest, neck and around the spine are also common...

read more
What is Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT)?

What is Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT)?

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) is a rare and fast-growing tumor that typically originates in the brain and spinal cord. These tumors most often occur in the part of the brain called the cerebellum, which controls movement and balance, or in the brain stem, which controls vital functions like breathing and heart rate. AT/RT mainly occurs in children under the age of three, but it can occur in older children and very rarely in adults. AT/RT is found in fewer than 3% of children with...

read more
What is Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)?

What is Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)?

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a brain tumor found in a part of the brain stem—above the back of the neck and connected to the spine—called the pons. The pons is a vital part of the brain, controlling critical bodily functions like breathing, swallowing, blood pressure, heart rate, eyesight and balance. DIPG occurs almost exclusively in children; most often between the ages of four and 11. DIPG accounts for roughly 10-15% of all brain tumors in children. These tumors—called gliomas...

read more
What is Rhabdomyosarcoma?

What is Rhabdomyosarcoma?

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a type of soft tissue cancer that most commonly affects children and adolescents. It’s often found in skeletal muscle tissue or organs, such as the head and neck area, the urinary system, the reproductive system or appendages like the arms and legs. Rhabdomyosarcoma is part of a larger grouping of cancers called sarcomas which emerge in the body’s connective tissues, like muscles, fat, bones, blood vessels and joints. There are 50 different types of sarcomas. There...

read more
What is Medulloblastoma?

What is Medulloblastoma?

Medulloblastoma is a type of brain cancer that’s most commonly found in children. “Medulloblastoma starts in the cerebellum, which is located in the back of the brain,” explained Rally-funded Researcher Dr. Jezabel Rodriguez-Blanco, Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina. “It is a fast-growing tumor that often compresses the ventricle that brings the protective cerebrospinal fluid to the brain. The cerebellum is the part of the brain that...

read more
What is a Glioma?

What is a Glioma?

“Glioma” is a general term for a group of tumors that begin in glial cells—the supporting cells of the brain. Gliomas are classified based on their location and by the type of glial cell—astrocytes, oligodendrocytes or ependymocytes—from which they arise. Thus, many different types of brain tumors are classified as gliomas, like astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, brain stem gliomas and glioblastomas. About half of all pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors are gliomas. Gliomas are...

read more

$

Sign up for our emails!

Fill out my online form.

Recent Posts

Volunteers are the heart of Rally's mission!

 

Enter your email below to receive details about our volunteer opportunities.

Thank you for your interest in volunteering with Rally! You should receive an email shortly with additional details.

X